Guizhou Province, called Qian or Gui for short, is located in the eastern part of southwest China’s Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, with Hunan Province to its east, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region to the south, Yunnan Province to the west, and Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality to the north. Its central location at the southwestern China makes it a crucial hub for the region.
Guizhou is a mountainous province. It covers an area of 176,100 square kilometers. The Province is more than 1,000 meters above ea level. The average sea level is 1,100 meters, adding to its rich mountainous topography. Actually, as much as 92.5% of the Province’s total area is characterized by mountains with its world-famous Karst rock formations of special appeal.
Because of its high altitude and relatively low latitude, which means it is influenced by southeasterly monsoon, the climate in Guizhou varies greatly in different regions. Generally, however, the weather is mild and humid. Abundant moisture makes chilly temperatures and severe heat rather rare. With an average air temperature of 5.2C in January and 24.3C in July, Guizhou is an ideal summer resort.
Guizhou is one of the birthplaces of mankind. There were human beings living on the land as early as about 500,000 or 600,000 years ago and created the antediluvian civilization. In 1382 AD, Emperor Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty established a military administration in the area. This was the first provincial military administration in Guizhou. In 1413 AD, Era Yongle of the Ming Dynasty established an administration, and for the first time, Guizhou became a province of China.
Population and Ethnic Groups
Apart from the Han people, there are many other minority groups living in Guizhou. Different ethnic groups account for 36.77% of the Province’s total population of 37.5 million. Guizhou is the home to 49 minority peoples, 17 of which view the Province as their cultural home. There are 10 minority groups including Miao (Moung), Buyi(Bouyi), Dong, Tujia, Yi, Gelao, Shui, Hui and Bai, whose populations are more than 100,000. In total, Guizhou has the country’s third biggest population of minority groups.